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Chapter 2, Cortical Systems

In a simple view, the outer layer of the brain is made up of Cortical Columns. Each column has six layers.

Cortical Layers

Figure 2.1 Cortical Layers

Figure 2 shows the layer structure. All incoming stimuli start at the 4th layer. The 4th Layer stimulates Layer 2 and Layer 3 which L3 stimulates Layers 6, an inhibitory L3 shadow layer, as well as Layer 4 of the next cortical layer. Layer 2 stimulates the Layer 4 of the next cortical column, as well as, Layer 5. Layer 1 is an incoming layer from the next cortical column which when stimulated, stimulates Layers 2, 5 and 6. Layer 5 stimulates Motor neurons/columns, Layer 6 stimulates the Thalamus and Layer 1 of the preceding cortical layer.

The Thalamus region has a special layering and flow. Each neuron from L5 is associated to the neuron in the Thalamus region and the Thalamus column is setup similar to the Cortical Column minus layer 6 and altered L5 with L3 and L2 looping back to L4 of the calling Cortical Column.

Cortical Layers

Figure 2.2 Thalamus Column

Columns are arranged by functional areas and then linked together; e.g. Sensory Input > Geniculate Layer > Visual Layer 1 (V1) > Visual Layer 2 (V2) ....

Cortical Layers

Chapter 3

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